The neat news is that we are now able to winkle out the necessary evidence from the DNA itself. This is one of those things that had to be true, just knowing the natural basis of hunter gatherer behavior. It always was an ugly process in today’s eyes and few have been willing to accept the reality.
Bands continually raided competing bands, while always on guard for similar attacks. This meant that men died and typically were eaten as part of the victory feast, while women were captured and made part of the victor’s band. Life was short and often nasty.
Negotiation and the forming of larger confederations and clans provided some protection, but I suspect that was humanities winning strategy. It is the best explanation for the expansion of population that naturally absorbed other ultimately much smaller populations.
The establishment of clans likely suppressed outright cannibalism, although I am not so sure reading the earliest reports out of the Tropical climes particularly. I suspect there the need for meat was simply more pressing while in temperate climes and most other conditions, large game herds simply made it unnecessary.
Neanderthals not the only apes humans bred with
12 May 2010 by Ewen Callaway
A LONG-awaited rough draft of the Neanderthal genome has revealed that our own DNA contains clear evidence that early humans interbred with Neanderthals.
Such interminglings have been suspected in the past, but there's more: Neanderthals were probably not the only other species early mixed with.
These findings call into question the familiar story that modern humans left
Africa around 100,000 years ago and swept aside all other species as they made their way around the globe. "It was a very simple story," says João Zilhão at the University of Bristol, . "Its simplicity suggested it would not be true." A more likely scenario is that as migrated, they met and interbred with other species that have all since died out. UK
The first definitive evidence of interbreeding comes from Svante Pääbo's teamat the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in
. They reported last week that the genome of humans today is roughly 1 to 4 per cent Neanderthal (Science, vol 328, p 710). This holds true for all non-Africans, suggesting that and Neanderthals interbred sometime between 100,000 and 45,000 years ago, after the first humans left Leipzig, Germany Africa but before they split into regional populations.
Another genetic study confirms this. Jeffrey Long at the
University of New Mexico in presented results from nearly 100 modern human populations at a meeting of the American Association for Physical Anthropologists in April. His team found evidence that Eurasians acquired genetic diversity from breeding with other species after they left Albuquerque Africa.
They also noticed a spike in genetic diversity in Indo-Pacific peoples, dating to around 40,000 years ago. This time, it's unlikely the diversity came from getting it on with Neanderthals, who never travelled that far south. That leaves a number of candidates, including and species related to , a small species which lived on an Indonesian island until about 13,000 years ago.
Neither Pääbo nor Long were able to show that when humans arrived in Europe they mixed with resident Neanderthals, but archaeological finds tell a different story, says Zilhão. In
, his team discovered the 25,000-year-old bones of a child they are convinced is a human-Neanderthal hybrid. Zilhão says fossils from Portugal and the Czech Republic also bear Neanderthal features, though others dispute this. Romania
Moreover, decorative artefacts characteristic of humans have cropped up at Neanderthal sites, dated to around the time of contact with humans in Africa and the
Middle East. Further east, 40,000-year-old human bones from a cave near Beijing, China, have features that recall other species, says Erik Trinkaus of Washington University in . St Louis, Missouri
In March, Pääbo's team reported the discovery of DNA from a hominin that is probably neither human nor Neanderthal that lived 50,000 to 30,000 years ago in a cave in southern
Siberia. They dubbed the creature X-woman, and sequencing machines are already decoding its genome, says Pääbo's colleague Ed Green of the University of California, . Could X-woman or its kind have bred with humans, too? "Stay tuned," Green says. Santa Cruz