We continue with Tellinger’s work. The stone works of
have been assigned to the bantu empire of Greater Zimbabwe that has been dated to the late middle ages and that can be accepted for now. Zimbabwe
Recall though that this can be much older and that the advent of the Bantu cattle based life way is recent in terms of African antiquity. They appeared only in the past several thousands of years.
Gold drove the rise of the Greater Zimbabwe polity. It seems reasonable that it is solely responsible for the observed stone works throughout. At least we have a consistent story that appears reasonable.
Yet my disquiet comes from the fact that any demand for gold could have triggered this development much earlier and that the Bantu could have simply inherited the ruins. It will take a critical eye to determine and confirm the truth.
Recall that all mining activity tends to leave artifacts aged towards the end of the operating live of the mines. Thus we have
New World metal objects clustered just before the conquest when it actually operated since the time of the European Bronze Age.
Discovering the Oldest Man-made Structures on Earth.
A 10-part article by Michael Tellinger
Part 3 of 10
So why is this Adam’s Calendar so special? The more research we do around it, the more we realise how important this structure is. The one thing we could not figure out was how the calendar was linked to the thousands of circular stone ruins in the greater part of southern
The first estimates of the number of stone ruins was made in 1891 by Theodore Bent who had a real fascination with the stone ruins. He was the first person to document his excavations of Great
at the time and estimated that there were about 4,000 stone ruins in this part of the world. Zimbabwe
In the early 70s Roger Summers calculated around 20,000 stone ruins. After my first year of living among the ruins and researching them extensively, I concluded that there are at least 100,000. This was confirmed by Prof. Revil Mason, retired head of Archaeology at the
University Of The Witwatersrand, . He immediately retracted his statement when I suggested that this would put at least 1 million people living and working here some 200 - 400 years ago. By the middle of 2009 I realised that we are looking at probably around 200,000 stone ruins. The more mountains I climbed the larger this ancient settlement became. Johannesburg
You see, this is where all the earlier researchers always got tripped up, because they did not have the benefit of aerial and satellite photography. Thanks to Johan Heine’s work over an extended period we could make much more accurate calculations than ever before.
But let’s get back to the this population thing, which is a huge problem for historians, because the population models and our history books suggest that the there were no more than 200,000 people living in the greater part of southern Africa between 200 – 400 years ago. It is quite obvious that it would require a much larger population to build so many stone structures. One of my favourite laughable theories, that are repeatedly presented by our tertiary institutions and leading archaeologists, is that many of these ancient stone settlements were built by the women and children. Do with this theory what you want.
But the link between Adam’s Calendar and the stone ruins still evaded us. For some reason we were under the impression that the
valley and impact crater did not have any stone ruins. The valley is the entire flat area, surrounded by mountains, which is overlooked by Adam’s Calendar. Until my friend Brian Young called me one day in great excitement, saying that he found a circle. Fortunately for me Brian is a superb pilot who runs a flying school right in the heart of the Barberton valley. We went flying on several occasion and not only did we find many stone circles but also the ancient roads that connected them all at some stage in the distant past. We also found gold mines and many other strange anomalies. Barberton
Suddenly it became quite obvious. If this was indeed Enki’s calendar, at the dawn of humanity, the entire valley would have been the main settlement and gold-mining area in the entire southern African region. From the edge of the mountain top where the calendar is perched, you can see the entire valley. The master looking down on his slaves producing gold, in thousands of gold mines. The most impressive of all would have been a hidden mine just north of Adam’s Pyramids, perched right in the middle of the valley. A mine that was rediscovered by prospectors many thousands of years later, and appropriately named,
Gold Mine. Sheba
Did I say pyramids? You heard right. We will deal with the growing body of evidence in the next article.
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Jul 30, 2008
Robert Mugabe, the President of Zimbabwe, presides over one of the world's richest minerals treasures, the Great Dyke region, which cuts a geological swath across the entire land from northeast to southwest. The real background to the pious concerns of the Bush Administration for human rights in
in the past several years is not Mugabe's possible election fraud or his expropriation of white settler farms. It is the fact that Mr. Mugabe has been quietly doing business, a lot of it, with the one country which has virtually unlimited need of strategic raw materials Zimbabwe can provide— China . Mugabe's Zimbabwe is, along with Sudan, on the central stage of the new war over control of strategic minerals of Africa between Washington and Beijing, with Zimbabwe playing a supporting role in the drama. The stakes are huge. Moscow
Zimbabwe 's President, Robert Mugabe is a very very bad man. This we all know from reading the newspapers or hearing the pronouncements of George W. Bush, earlier
's Tony Blair and more recently Gordon Brown. In their eyes he has sinned badly. They charge that he is a dictator; that he has expropriated, often with violence, the farms of whites as part of land reform; they claim he rigged his re-election by vote fraud and violence; that he has ruined the economy of Britain . Zimbabwe
Whether Robert Mugabe deserves to be in Washington 's honor roll of villains alongside Fidel Castro, Saddam Hussein, Milosevic, Ahmadinejad, and Adolf Hitler, however, it is not the reason Washington and London have made Zimbabwe regime change priority number one for their Africa policy.
What his sin is seems to have more to do with his attempts to get out from under Anglo-American neo-colonial serfdom dependency and to pursue a national economic development independent of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank. His real sin seems to be the fact that he has turned to the one nation that offers his government credits and soft loans for economic development with no strings attached—The Peoples' Republic of
Western media accounts conveniently tend to omit the second major party to what is a huge tug of war between Anglo-American interests and
China to get control of 's vast mineral wealth. We should keep in mind that for Zimbabwe there are always “good dictators” and “bad dictators.” The difference is whether the given dictator serves US national interests or not. Mugabe clearly is in the latter category. Washington
Cecil Rhodes' legacy
Rhodes, a seasoned geologist, knew well that there was a remarkable geological fault running from the mouth of the Nile at the Gulf of Suez south through Sudan , Uganda , Tanzania , down through today's
Zimbabwe on to . Rhodes had already instigated several wars to gain control of the diamonds of Kimberly and the gold of Witwatersrand in South Africa . This geological phenomenon he, as well as enterprising German explorers, had discovered in the 1880's. They named it the South Africa Great Rift Valley.
Rhodesia , like South Africa after the bloody Boer wars, was settled by white settlers to secure future minerals gains for allied interests of the City of London , mainly those of the powerful Oppenheimer family and their gold and diamond enterprises in the region.
In 1962 when Africa was undergoing the wave of national liberation from colonial rule, a wave calculatedly supported by “non-colonial power” Washington, Rhodesia was one of the last bastions, along with former British colony South Africa, of white Apartheid rule. Whites in
constituted only 1-2% of the total population so their methods of holding on to power were rather ruthless. Rhodesia
White supremacist Prime Minister, Ian Smith, declared Rhodesian independence from
in 1965 rather than agree to the slightest compromise on race or power sharing with black nationalists. Britain got UN trade sanctions imposed to force Smith to buckle under. Despite sanctions, there was considerable support from conservative business interests in Britain . Britain 's Tiny Rowland, head of the Lonrho mining conglomerate, secured the bulk of his African profits from Rhodesian copper mining and related ventures under the Smith regime. The City of London London knew very well what riches lay in . The question was how to secure enduring control. Smith's Rhodesian backers had little interest in giving it all to Rhodesia . London
Following a long and bloody struggle, in 1980 the leader of the black African Popular Front coalition, Robert Mugabe, overwhelmingly won election as the first Prime Minister of a new Zimbabwe . Twenty eight years later, the same Robert Mugabe is under escalating attack from the West, especially Zimbabwe's former colonial master, England, including strong economic sanctions designed to bring the country to the brink of collapse, to force him to open the economy to foreign (read Anglo-American and allied) investment. Ironically, the issue seems not all that different from the Ian Smith era:
and US control of the resources of the rich land, and Zimbabwean efforts to resist that control. London
The Great Dyke
Within Zimbabwe, a portion of the rich Great Rift is called the Great Dyke, an intrusive geological treasure zone running over 530 kilometers from the northeast to the southwest of the country, in places up to 12 kilometers wide. A river runs along the fault and the region is volcanically active. Here also lie vast deposits of chromium, of copper, platinum and other metals.
US State Department, as well as London , is aware of the vast minerals and other riches of . It states in a recent report on Zimbabwe Zimbabwe , “ is endowed with rich mineral resources. Exports of gold, asbestos, chrome, coal, platinum, nickel, and copper could lead to an economic recovery one day...The country is richly endowed with coal-bed methane gas that has yet to be exploited. Zimbabwe
With international attractions such as Victoria Falls , the Great
Zimbabwe stone ruins, , and extensive wildlife, tourism historically has been a significant segment of the economy and contributor of foreign exchange. The sector has contracted sharply since 1999, however, due to the country's declining international image.(sic). Lake Kariba
With considerable hydroelectric power potential and plentiful coal deposits for thermal power station, Zimbabwe is less dependent on oil as an energy source than most other comparably industrialized countries, but it still imports 40% of its electric power needs from surrounding countries--primarily Mozambique. Only about 15% of
's total energy consumption is accounted for by oil, all of which is imported. Zimbabwe imports about 1.2 billion liters of oil per year. Zimbabwe also has substantial coal reserves that are utilized for power generation, and coal-bed methane deposits recently discovered in Matabeleland province are greater than any known natural gas field in Southern or Eastern Africa. In recent years, poor economic management and low foreign currency reserves have led to serious fuel shortages." Zimbabwe
In short, chrome, copper, gold, platinum, huge hydroelectric power potential and vast coal reserves are what is at stake for
Washington and London in . The country also has unverified reserves of uranium, something in big demand today for nuclear power generation. Zimbabwe
It is clear of late that so long as the tenacious Mugabe is running things, not the Anglo-Americans, but rather the Chinese, are Zimbabwe 's preferred business partners. This seems to be Mugabe's greatest sin. He's not reading from the right program as George W. Bush's friends see it. His real sin seems to be turning East not West for economic and investment help.
The Chinese connection
During the Cold War
recognized and supported Robert Mugabe. In recent years as China 's search for secure raw materials escalated its foreign diplomacy, relations have become stronger. According to the Chinese media, China China has invested more in than any other nation. Zimbabwe
Already back in July 2005 as Tony Blair turned the sanctions screws tighter on
Zimbabwe , Mugabe flew to to meet with the top Chinese leadership, where he reportedly sought an emergency loan of US$1 billion and asked increased Chinese involvement in the economy. Beijing
It began to bear fruit. In June 2006 state--owned Zimbabwean businesses signed a number of energy, mining and farming deals worth billions of dollars with Chinese companies. The largest was with China Machine-Building International Corporation, for a $1,3bn contract to mine coal and build thermal-power generators in
Zimbabwe , to reduce 's electricity shortage. The Chinese company had already built thermal-power stations in Zimbabwe Nigeria and Sudan , and had been involved in mining projects in . Gabon
In 2007 the Chinese government donated farm machinery worth $25 million to
, including 424 tractors and 50 trucks, as part of a $58 million loan to the Zimbabwean government. The Mugabe administration had previously seized white-owned farms and gave them to blacks, damaging machinery in the process. In return for the equipment and the loan the Zimbabwean government will ship 30 million kilograms of tobacco to the People's Republic of Zimbabwe . China
Other Zimbabwe-China agreements included a deal between the
Zimbabwe Mining Development and 's Star Communications, forming a joint venture to mine chrome, with funding from the China Development Bank. China also agreed to import road-building, irrigation and farming equipment from the China National Construction and Agricultural Machinery Import and Export Corporation and China Poly Group. Zimbabwe also relies on China for imports of telecommunications equipment, military hardware and many other critical items it can no longer import from the west because of the British-led sanctions. Zimbabwe
Relations have become so important that
Zimbabwe 's police have a dedicated “ desk” to protect Chinese interests in the country. China
In April 2007 the chairman of China 's top political advisory body, Jia Qinglin, head of the National Committee of the Chinese Peoples' Political Consultative Conference, flew to Harare to meet with Mugabe. It was a follow-up to the 2006
Beijing China-Africa Cooperation where the Chinese government invited the heads of more than 40 African states to discuss relations. Africa has become a diplomatic and economic priority for Summit and its economy. China
At that time,
got an open invitation to help develop dormant mines in the country. The deputy speaker of Beijing Zimbabwe 's parliament called for more Chinese investment in the country's mining sector, according to 's Xinhua news agency. China 's mining laws were changed to allow the government to reallocate mining claims that were not being exploited. Zimbabwe
Mining generates half of
's export revenue. It is the only sector in the country that still has foreign investors after the collapse of the main agricultural sector. Western companies with mining claims in Zimbabwe were not exploiting them. "We would appeal to the Chinese government to come in full force to exploit these minerals," Zimbabwean Deputy Parliamentary Speaker, Kumbirai Kangai said to the official Xinhua. Zimbabwe
Kangai assured potential Chinese investors that they would not expose themselves to legal action if they took over claims held by Western companies.
A few months after, in December 2007, Chinese company, Sinosteel Corporation, acquired 67 percent stake in
's leading ferrochrome producer and exporter Zimasco Holdings. Zimasco Holdings is the fifth largest high carbonated ferrochrome producer in the world. It used to produce 210,000 tons of high-carbon ferrochrome per year, nearly all of it along the mineral-rich Great Dyke, accounting for 4 percent of global ferrochrome production. Zimbabwe
Zimasco has also the world's second largest reserves of chrome, after
. It was formerly owned by Union Carbide Corporation, now part of Dow Chemicals Corp. South Africa
Oh, oh! Alarm bells went ringing in
London and in at that news. Washington
China clearly views Africa as a central part of its strategic plan, most notably for its oil reserves and vital raw materials such as copper, chrome, nickel. The continent is also at the same time becoming an important region for Chinese manufactured exports. But the raw materials battle is at the heart, and the real reason by all accounts, why
Washington recently decided to form a separate Africa Command in the Pentagon.
China 's economic emergence is an un-stated strategic priority of foreign and military policy and has been since before September 11, 2001 . The only delicate point in the business is the fact that China, with well over $1.7 trillions of foreign exchange reserves, most believed in form of US Treasury securities, could trigger a complete dollar panic and further collapse of the US economy should she decide for political reasons it were too risky to continue holding its hundreds of billions of US dollar debt. In effect, by buying US Government debt with its trade surpluses, United States China has been indirectly financing US policies counter to Chinese national interest such as the Iraq war, or even the $100 million or so annually that Condi Rice's State Department spends on . Tibet
It may or may not be cynical. It may be Realpolitik. If it results in the ability of certain African countries to use
as a political counterweight to the one-sided Anglo-American domination of the Continent, that itself could be a major benefit to Africans depending on how they use it. China
Clearly, it has been extremely positive for Chinese access to vital economic minerals for its economy as well as oil from places such as Darfur and southern
Sudan , or . Nigeria
Mineral wealth has once more put
Africa on center stage of a battle for mineral riches between East and West. This time, unlike during the Cold War era, however, Beijing is playing with far more assets, and with far less. Washington
By F. William Engdahl